Germs- Diamond basically says that Europeans were more immune to diseases than others for two reasons:
  • There was a bigger population in a more dense area than most other countries at this time
  • Europeans had already domesticated animals meaning they've pretty much grown an immunity to the animal diseases unlike the rest of the world.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

  • Making travel difficult
  • Where crops can ideally grow easily due to the sun.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

  • Affects where domesticated animals can easily travel
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)


Domesticating Animals- The transition from hunter-gatherer to city-dwelling agrarian societies was the presence of large domesticated animals.
  • Mostly raised for meat, work, and long-distance communication
  • Diamond states the most 5 useful out of the 15 domesticated animals are: cow, horse, sheep, goat, and pig)
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

Animals Diet- Why raise herbivores over carnivores?
  • Carnivores would feed on your other domesticated animals, which would mean you would need to raise more animals. So if you have more animals, more animals would feed on your crops. All in all having carnivores mean you have to double your domesticated animals and double your crop supply, so it wouldn't make much since to do.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

Size- This affects the use of an animal more than you would think. If its a smaller animal it loses a lot of its use. For example:
  • Not as much meat
  • Can't do as hard of labor
  • You couldn't ride them long distances to trade or communicate to other cities/towns.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)


  • How easily crops can grow due to the sun
  • Weather, if its too cold crops will most likely not grow as well.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

Terrain-Affects the crops in many ways for example:
  • Mountainous areas are much harder to farm on than flat areas of farm land; and you can't really do it unless you have the technology to do so.
(Guns, Germs, And Steel)

Different Crops With Different Nutrition- Due to different climates and terrain, different countries produce different crops. Since there are different crops all over the world, the different crops also have very different nutrition. All in all different cultures in different parts of the world will have more nutritious crops making their area healthier or not as good of crops which could make them not as healthy.